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Ferris M. Works can belong to more than one series. In some cases, as with Chronicles of Narnia , disagreements about order necessitate the creation of more than one series. Tip: If the series has an order, add a number or other descriptor in parenthesis after the series title eg. By default, it sorts by the number, or alphabetically if there is no number.
If you want to force a particular order, use the character to divide the number and the descriptor. So, " 0 prequel " sorts by 0 under the label "prequel. Series was designed to cover groups of books generally understood as such see Wikipedia: Book series. Like many concepts in the book world, "series" is a somewhat fluid and contested notion. However typical of their period these two inter-war styles may seem today, they hardly dominated their age. The era was characterized by a series of revivals, including Georgian in Britain and Colonial in America.
In his satiric survey Pillar to Post: English Architecture without Tears , the British critic Osbert Lancaster caricatured Moderne as well as Modernism, but also paraded before his readers a bevy of now-forgotten styles popular at the time. Sumptuously crafted and exalting in both exotic as well as more common materials, the style embodied hard-edged opulence, bristling with the kaleidoscopic motion and glossy luxury pecu- liar to chrome and tinted glass.
Although aspects of Deco had flourished for at least a decade before the Paris Exposition of , the French exhibi- tion was crucial to its promotion and dissemination.
Moreover, economics of the Depression era mingled Modernistic aesthetics with marketing innovations. Streamlining, the dominant style of this later phase of Art Deco, suggested the resonant power of the machine age.
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Speed and technological innovation haunted the age, providing aesthetic dazzle while creating a mass culture. Radio, for instance, not only made national celebrities of Will Rogers and Rudy Vallee, but also grew into a crucial advertising medium. From bath salts to Buicks, products promoted via radio foreshadowed marketing campaigns of the post-war television era. The increasing ubiquity of Hollywood cinema, especially in the s, introduced a shared visual culture of gangster films like Little Caesar , musicals like 42nd Street and historical dramas such as Mary of Scotland Never embraced by serious critics, Modernistic design fell out of favour during World War Two.
Modernist architects and theorists such as Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier had always insisted that theirs was the only legitimate claim to contemporary machine-age imagery.
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Moderne was not marginalized in the post-war period; it was merely erased. The New Art Nouveau Long before scholars recognized it, the public was primed for a resurrection of inter-war style, if only because the heavily marketed Art Nouveau revival was rapidly losing its exclusive cachet.
In a Life magazine article of on Camp, Gloria Steinem remarked that Tiffany lamps, previously one of the crucial markers for chic taste, ceased being a marker of in-group exclusive- ness when they were used to decorate a popular New York steak house. As its popularity increased, however, its Campy exclusiveness necessarily declined, leaving adherents hungry for a newer retro phenomenon.
Marketers and collectors alike cast about for a replace- ment, looking for the new Art Nouveau.
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Many popular observers predicted the eventual vogue of inter-war design. Yet in spite of these futuristic fantasies, the event was haunted by ghosts from the past. Both events were organized by the celebrated urban planner Robert Moses and even shared some of the same buildings. Westinghouse, General Motors and other major corporations who helped sponsor the —40 fair returned; General Motors updated its popular Futurama display. Westinghouse exhibited a model of a time capsule buried at the end of the —40 fair along with photographs documenting space exploration and nuclear physics.
Pop artists, too, began to define and memorialize the styles and icons of their formative years, namely popular Modernism and the mass culture from the Depression.
This revival of its original night-time lighting design established the structure as a night- time landmark, triggering a series of magazine and newspaper articles. The brazen enthusiasm of Deco culture also percolated into public consciousness through early s film culture. Increasingly, foreign and Depression-era films found new audiences, both in newly established cine- mas, as well as mainstream television broadcasting, where they provided cut-rate programming for independent stations. Advertising strategies of sloganeering and branding, perfected in the years leading up to World War Two, were quickly assimilated by Pop artists.
Moreover, films, radio and comics of the inter-war years now seemed like quaint prototypes for the technological sophistication of colour television and interstellar travel. Art Deco as such the term was coined in the sixties would not exist if Pop Art did not exist.
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Instead the Modernistic Art Deco, with its streamlined blend of technology and populism, would soon be considered the primary expression of main- stream inter-war art, architecture and design. For Pop artists, carefully selected images from this period provided a readily accessible history, an iconography for the machine age but also of a fundamentally optimistic commodity culture unsullied by economic depression and totalitarian politics.
Part factory, part labora- tory, part garrison, its mechanized precision and brawny valour suggest a world designed with T-square and compass. In the 10 by foot trip- tych might have imparted the history of aviation in a bank lobby or touted the ideal factory in a post office interior. Guggenheim Museum, New York. To a later generation of Pop artists, however, Art Deco was creative catnip. While many Pop artists worked extensively with Deco motifs, the style also suggested a faded glamour, presenting themes of consumption, progress and Modernity in a new light.
Lichtenstein, too, collected Art Deco pieces during this period. But mechanical landscapes like Preparedness represented an era that he found both intriguing and suspect. Warhol had jettisoned his Tiffany lamps in favour of Art Deco by the early s. Warhol himself, however, rarely acknowledged his obsession publicly.
Warhol actually sought out Deco works with the same tenacity as the collectors who had helped to bring back Art Nouveau to prominence in the previous decade; although he publicly played down his acquisitions, for him, as for the earlier Nouveau collectors, such activities were also self-defining. We started with silents. Empire used over-exposed film to record the Art Deco structure over the course of a night, beginning shortly after sundown and ending some seven hours later.
The explicit, even voyeuristic, handling of sex, mean- while, utterly refuted the chaste and guileless Hays-era romances. Supplanting a tale of Christian redemption with comic-strip warriors, he gently exposes the faith of machine-age optimism, while wistfully recalling their confidence. A second-generation Minimalist, Smithson exploded conceptions of time and history through the prismatic mirror of popular Modernism.
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In Art Deco, Smithson found striking visual and material analogies that supported his interest in the cyclical nature of time as expressed through mirrors, refracted imagery and crystalline structures. While several of his contemporaries, for instance Joe Tilson and Sol LeWitt, worked with or wrote about ziggurat shapes,35 Smithson estab- lished a singular connection to the subject. The Angry Brigade, a loosely organized group that had carried off similar small bomb attacks on police stations and government offices, quickly took responsibility with a press release to The Times.
While the previous Art Nouveau revival had been shaped by both traditional dealers, collectors, journalists and scholars, Art Deco represented the unusual phenomenon of a historical vision shaped largely by non-historians. Just as s cinema initially influenced both the art and the collecting habits of Lichtenstein and Warhol, s stage and film directors combed the older period for inspiration.
Pollard in Bonnie and Clyde, directed by Arthur Penn, Nevertheless, audiences in the late s and early s still thrilled to early forerunners of their own mass-media culture. Columbia, Decca and other record companies re-released their backlists of big band and jazz recordings. As Jean W. But, as s advertisers for Dubonnet scrambled to achieve a Deco-inspired identity, they communicated a kind of non-sentimental nostalgia adamant in its modernity but also hopelessly dated. And, of course, they are [italics hers] new. As John Canaday in observed in the New York Times, the Depression years and the American bacchanal that led to them are distressing memories except to young people who know them through the second-hand memory of books, movies, and the decorative arts.
The young can regard the horrors of the jazz age and the terrors of the breadline with the same interest and equanimity that anyone can feel about the bloodletting of the French Revolution. Hillier, who introduced the term to a general audience in his monograph Art Deco, avoided giving a full-scale definition of the style. The Paris exhibition of that used this name limited itself to works from the Paris exhibition of , but Art Deco quickly came to mean much more.
Lynn Ward, an American illustrator active in the s, made no attempt to hide his bewilderment when asked to describe the style by Print magazine in Alfred Tulk, an American painter who worked commercially during the inter-war years, was equally perplexed, but more philosophical, when he spoke with Print. These are the people who are always pushing for change without invention.
With increasingly serious and sustained attention paid to Art Deco, designers, journalists and dealers created a historical style that would subsequently become the subject of traditional academic study. Critical interest is up. Prestige is up. Today, Art Deco has become serious, historical and, in two words, no joke. We are, in fact, at that moment in taste when the former imposes the latter as a moral responsibility. But these students were not from the SDS Students for a Democratic Society , leaders of a revolt that had rocked the campus the previous year.
Their popu- larity would only increase; less than a decade later the group hosted an enormously popular weekly television show. The mechanism for retro revivals was already in place — the only ques- tion was which aspect of the modern past would be resurrected next.
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Now the nostalgia nuts seem to be closing the gap with the present. Beginning in the late s and ending in the early s, it was not even a decade. But, like earlier retro revivals, such technicalities scarcely bothered the pop histor- ians who fuelled the resurrection of the era. Managing to charm and aggravate in equal measure, retro was expanding its appeal, but it was also marching to the beat of marketers and an entertainment industry eager to reinvent the modern past.
At the time, the s revival was thought to mark a shift away from counter-cultural ideal- ism. Immersing oneself in the past proved a way to challenge it. Frightened, he refused to reappear for an encore.