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Survey Requirements for Box Culverts

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A: Indirect Design is the standard method for designing reinforced concrete pipe. It is a simplified method that corresponds to a pipe produced to a performance specification, whereby it is tested at the plant to verify its strength. When a concrete pipe cannot be tested to verify its strength in the plant, than the pipe structure must be designed similar to any other concrete structure using a direct design method that incorporates load factors and process factors into the design.

Frequently-Used Standards

If an engineer comes across a D-load of pipe that cannot be tested in the three-edge bearing test, either because the producer can not apply sufficient load, or the pipe is too large to fit within the three-edge bearing test apparatus, then the engineer might want utilize the direct design method to design the pipe. Small diameter pipe should not be designed using the Direct Design Method due to the fact that the equations for direct design were originally formulated for larger diameters and therefore are overly conservative for the design of small diameter concrete pipe.

Q: What is the minimum fill height I can bury a concrete pipe? A: The minimum fill height is a function of both the load being applied at the surface above the pipe, and the strength of the class of pipe provided. Since concrete pipe is a composite of concrete and steel, you can reduce your fill height as low as you like, provided you design the pipe to sustain the applied loads.

In some cases where extremely heavy machinery will be traveling over the pipe, you may have to utilize a concrete pipe with strength above a Class V pipe, the highest class of pipe denoted in ASTM C This can be accomplished by working with your local producer. Q: What is the difference between a trench and embankment installation?

Frequently-Used Standards

A: Concrete Pipe can be installed in either a trench or embankment condition. The type of installation has significant effect on the load carried by the rigid pipe. Trench: When concrete pipe is installed in a relatively narrow trench, settlement between the backfill material and the undisturbed soil in which the trench is excavated generates upward frictional forces which effects a load transfer.

This load transfer helps support the backfill material within the trench and results in less load on the pipe than the weight of the prism of backfill material over the pipe. Embankment: In this condition the soil along the pipe wall will settle more than the soil directly above the pipe. A: Velocity, by itself, does not create problems for concrete pipe within the ranges normally encountered.

At velocities up to 40 feet per second, the severity of velocity-abrasion effects depends upon the characteristics of the bed load. Q: Does the American Concrete Pipe Association provide any guidance on designing precast box culverts? A: Yes. These design notes can be found on our website: www. Q: How do I size the culvert required for my project? Selection of an excessive n value leads to an uneconomical design due to oversizing of the pipe, while an insufficient value results in an hydraulically inadequate sewer system.

More information on calculating the hydraulics in a pipeline can be found in Design Data Unlike thermoplastic pipe, concrete is produced with benign, natural materials. Manufacturing of concrete consumes less energy than plastic fabrication. And, when you use local resources, concrete can also provide lower fuel cost for delivery.

Q: Why is it important to design concrete pipe to the 0.

To be or Not to Be LRFD - National Precast Concrete Association

A: Reinforced concrete pipe, like other reinforced concrete structures, is designed to crack. It is well known that while concrete is very strong in compression, its tensile strength is so low that it is considered negligible in design. Therefore, RCP design accommodates the high compressive strength of concrete and the high tensile strength of steel.

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As load on the pipe increases, and the tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded, cracks will form as the tensile load is transferred to the steel. Typically, the cracks form a V-shape with the largest part of the crack at the surface. The presence of a 0. Q: What is the difference between service life and design life? Q: What is the service life of concrete pipe? A: The Army Corps of Engineers recommends a design life of years for precast concrete pipe, and there are countless examples of installations that surpass those numbers.

Quality concrete pipe densities typically range from pounds per cubic foot. Usually, the higher the density, the greater the durability of the concrete pipe. A: Our QCast program outlines guidelines for quality production and testing of concrete pipe. A: Joints are manufactured with various geometries and tolerances, and therefore the best way to determine an acceptable joint gap is to contact the manufacturer.

A: Joints are manufactured with various geometries and tolerances, and therefore the best way to determine the radius you can turn is to contact the manufacturer.